WIAS Preprint No. 852, (2003)

Two- and three-dimensional transient melt-flow simulation in vapour-pressure-controlled Czochralski crystal growth


  • Bänsch, Eberhard
  • Davis, Dominic
  • Langmach, Hartmut
  • Reinhardt, Gerd
  • Uhle, Manfred

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 35Q30 65M60 76-04 76D05


  • axisymmetric, buoyancy, Czochralski, crystal growth, finite-element, GaAs, Navier-Stokes equations, vapour-pressure controlled


Flow and thermal properties associated with semiconductor melt flow in an axisymmetric crucible container are studied numerically. Axisymmetric and three-dimensional computational solutions are obtained using a standard-Galerkin, finite-element solver. The crucible and crystal are optionally rotated, and the influence of gravity (through buoyancy) is accounted for via a Boussinesq approximation in the controlling Navier-Stokes equations. The results indicate a strong dependence of the flow on both rotation and buoyancy. Results for axisymmetric flows, computed in both flat and curved geometries, are presented first, and strongly suggest that rotation of crystal and crucible in the same direction (iso-rotation) is most favourable for producing a desired convexity for the crystal/melt interface. Three-dimensional results are then presented for higher Reynolds numbers, and, in particular, reveal that for iso-rotation under moderate buoyancy, the flow undergoes a switch from a steady, 2D state to an unsteady 3D state, and that the temperature becomes non-trivially advected by the flow beneath the crystal. Further evidence reveals however, that on a time scale more appropriate to the crystal growth process, the (time-averaged) flow has a weaker three-dimensionality, in relation to its axisymmetric mode, and there is only slight distortion to the temperature field beneath the crystal.

Appeared in

  • Comput. Fluids, 25 (2006) pp. 1400--1419.

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